Authentication using HTTPS client certificates

Posted on July 22, 2017 permalink comments

We hear a lot about how passwords are insecure, and should not be used alone for authentication. They are hard to remember, so users are tempted to come up with weak passwords, and reuse them across multiple websites. Even if the password is strong, it’s still just a short string the users know.

There are numerous ways to mitigate this, such as HMAC or time-based one-time passwords or more recently universal 2nd-factor hardware tokens. They all based on something the user has, rather than something they know. What they have is a secret key, which they can use to generate a password or sign messages.

What seems to be forgotten in the consumer world is that every browser has had a feature built-in since TLS was introduced, called mutual authentication, which allows the user to present a certificate as well as the server. This means the user can authenticate with something they have and – if the certificate is protected by a passphrase – something they know.

In this post, we implement a simple Node.js example which uses client certificates to authenticate the user.

We only one need external dependency, express, otherwise, we just depend on the standard Node.js HTTPS server. We also need fs to read the certificates/keys to configure HTTPS.

const express = require('express')
const fs = require('fs')
const https = require('https')

Setting up the private key and the certificate

First of all, we need to generate our keys and certificates. We use the openssl command-line tool. On Linux, it’s likely already installed – if not, install the openssl package of your distribution. On Windows it’s a bit trickier, see this tutorial;

Like with every regular HTTPS server, we need to generate a server certificate. For the sake of brevity, we use a self-signed certificate here – in real life, you probably want to use a well-known certificate authority, such as Let’s Encrypt.

To generate a self-signed certificate (in our case, without encryption):

$ openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout server_key.pem -out server_cert.pem -nodes -days 365 -subj "/CN=localhost/O=Client\ Certificate\ Demo"

This is actually a three-step process combined into one command:

  • Create a new 4096bit RSA key and save it to server_key.pem, without DES encryption (-newkey, -keyout and -nodes)
  • Create a Certificate Signing Request for a given subject, valid for 365 days (-days, -subj)
  • Sign the CSR using the server key, and save it to server_cert.pem as an X.509 certificate (-x509, -out)

We could have also done this with tree commands, openssl genrsa, openssl req and openssl x509. We used the PEM format (the default setting), which is a base64-encoded text file with a ----- BEGIN/END CERTIFICATE/PRIVATE KEY ----- header and footer. Another option would be the DER format, which uses binary encoding. There is a bit of a confusion what the file extension should refer to: it’s also common to use .key or .crt, referring to the contents of the file rather than the encoding (in which case they can contain both DER- and PEM-encoded data).

Configuring the Node.js HTTP server

Let’s add our server key and certificate to the options object, which we pass to the HTTPS server later:

const opts = { key: fs.readFileSync('server_key.pem')
             , cert: fs.readFileSync('server_cert.pem')

Next, we instruct the HTTPS server to request a client certificate from the user

             , requestCert: true

Then we tell it to accept requests with no valid certificate. We need this to handle invalid connections as well (for example to display an error message), otherwise, they would just get a cryptic HTTPS error message from the browser (ERR_BAD_SSL_CLIENT_AUTH_CERT to be precise)

             , rejectUnauthorized: false

Finally, we supply a list of CA certificates that we consider valid. For now, we sign client certificates with our own server key, so it will be the same as our server certificate.

             , ca: [ fs.readFileSync('server_cert.pem') ]

Then we create our app. We use express only for routeing here – we could use the passport middleware as well, with a strategy for client certificates, but for now, we keep things simple.

const app = express()

We add our “landing page” first. This is unprotected, so everyone will see it whether they present a client cert or not.

app.get('/', (req, res) => {
	res.send('<a href="authenticate">Log in using client certificate</a>')

Then we add our protected endpoint: it just displays information about the user and the validity of their certificate. We can get the certificate information from the HTTPS connection handle:

app.get('/authenticate', (req, res) => {
	const cert = req.connection.getPeerCertificate()

The req.client.authorized flag will be true if the certificate is valid and was issued by a CA we white-listed earlier in We display the name of our user (CN = Common Name) and the name of the issuer, which is localhost.

	if (req.client.authorized) {
		res.send(`Hello ${cert.subject.CN}, your certificate was issued by ${cert.issuer.CN}!`)

They can still provide a certificate which is not accepted by us. Unfortunately, the cert object will be an empty object instead of null if there is no certificate at all, so we have to check for a known field rather than truthiness.

	} else if (cert.subject) {
		   .send(`Sorry ${cert.subject.CN}, certificates from ${cert.issuer.CN} are not welcome here.`)

And last, they can come to us with no certificate at all:

	} else {
		   .send(`Sorry, but you need to provide a client certificate to continue.`)

Let’s create our HTTPS server and we’re ready to go.

https.createServer(opts, app).listen(9999)

Then we can start our server with npm i && node server.js.

Setting up client certificates

If we try to “log in” to our site now, we get a 401 response, because we don’t have any client certificates yet. To test our setup, we create two certificates for our two users, Alice and Bob. Alice is nice as she has a valid certificate issued by us, while Bob is nasty and tries to log in using a self-signed certificate.

To create a key and a Certificate Signing Request for Alice and Bob we can use the following command:

$ openssl req -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout alice_key.pem -out alice_csr.pem -nodes -days 365 -subj "/CN=Alice"
$ openssl req -newkey rsa:4096 -keyout bob_key.pem -out bob_csr.pem -nodes -days 365 -subj "/CN=Bob"

We sign Alice’s CSR with our key and save it as a certificate. Here, we act as a Certificate Authority, so we supply our certificate and key via the -CA parameters:

$ openssl x509 -req -in alice_csr.pem -CA server_cert.pem -CAkey server_key.pem -out alice_cert.pem -set_serial 01 -days 365

Bob doesn’t believe in authority, so he just signs his certificate on his own:

$ openssl x509 -req -in bob_csr.pem -signkey bob_key.pem -out bob_cert.pem -days 365

Trying to get in

To use these certificates in our browser, we need to bundle them in PKCS#12 format. That will contain both the private key and the certificate, thus the browser can use it for encryption. For Alice, we add the -clcerts option, which excludes the CA certificate from the bundle. Since we issued the certificate, we already have the certificate: we don’t need to include it in Alice’s certificate as well. You can also password-protect the certificate.

$ openssl pkcs12 -export -clcerts -in alice_cert.pem -inkey alice_key.pem -out alice.p12
$ openssl pkcs12 -export -in bob_cert.pem -inkey bob_key.pem -out bob.p12

We can import these private keys to the browser. In Firefox, go to Preferences -> Advanced -> View Certificates -> Import, and choose both files.

If you open https://localhost:9999 in the browser now, a dialog will come up to choose a certificate. Note that only Alice’s certificate is in the list: that’s because the browser already knows that only certs issued by us will be accepted (because we advertise it using the list). If you continue, you’ll see our success message with the details of Alice.

This is only a browser limitation, you can still try to get in with Bob’s cert using cURL:

$ curl --insecure --cert bob.p12 --cert-type p12 https://localhost:9999/authenticate

And see that Bob’s not welcome here!

Of course this solution isn’t practical in real life: we don’t want to genereate keys for our users via the command line and have them installing them into their browsers manually. In the next article, we’ll see how we can generate new client certificates dynamically and install them seamlessly to the users’ browser.

To try this server, there clone this post’s github repo, where you can also find the keys and certificates.